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In the seventh year of the Jian'an era (202AD), Cao Cao moved north to attack Yuan Shao. Liu Biao took the opportunity to send Liu Bei to invade Xudu. The Liu Bei's and Xiahou Dun's armies met in Bowang. Liu Bei's army pretended to be defeated and destroyed their own camp. Xiahou Dun was tricked and was ambushed by Liu Bei's army in the forest of Bowang Slope. Li Dian's army had taken precautions and cautioned Xiahou Dun. Both armies retreated in succession.
In the thirteenth year of the Jian'an era (208AD), prime minister Cao Cao personally led 200,000 troops and fought against Sun Quan and Liu Bei's coalition of 50,000 troops at the Red Cliffs on the Yangtze River. The Sun Liu coalition used fire to destroy Cao Cao's newly taken over Jingzhou navy and then stormed the Cao camp. The Cao army retreated in a panic. Zhou Yu and Liu Bei trailed them from water and land. Over half of Cao's army died and the rest retreated to Jiangling, earning the Sun Liu coalition an absolute victory.
In the sixteenth year of the Jian'an era (211AD), Cao Cao's army arrived in Tongguan and confronted the 100,000 soldier Guanxi coalition of Han Sui and Ma Chao. With many victories in cross river battles, Cao Cao's army successfully crossed the Wei River in September and began to build Dongshacheng. The Guanxi coalition didn't have enough rations and tried to make peace with Cao Cao. Cao Cao took the opportunity to drive a wedge between the two coalition leaders and weaken the morale of alliance. Next, he launched an attack against the coalition and defeated it completely. As a result, Han Sui, Ma Chao, and Liang Xing retreated to Liangzhou and the main forces of the Guanxi coalition were wiped out.
In the fifth year of the Jian'an era (200AD), Yuan Shao announced a crusade against Cao Cao. Cao Cao responded quickly, and defeated Yan Liang's branch of Yuan's army by surrounding them with white horses. He then entered a confrontation in Guandu and Yuan Shao. After three months of a seesaw battle, Cao Cao took the advice of his advisor Xu You and led 5000 cavalry to secretly attack Yuan Shao's base, Wuchao. Yuan Shao's army lost heart. Zhang He and Gao Lan surrendered. Cao Cao took the opportunity to destroy Yuan's army and killed about 70,000 people. Yuan Shao retreated to Hebei with only 800 cavalry.
In the twenty fourth year of the Jian'an era (219 AD), Guan Yu launched a raid against Fancheng. Cao's reinforcements were surrounded by flooding and destroyed by Guan Yu's army. Next, Fancheng was surrounded and the center of the city was underwater due to the floods. It was an emergency. Afterwards, Cao Cao took Jiang Ji's advice to connect with the Eastern Wu and secretly attack Guan Yu's army. He then sent Xu Huang's new army to support Fancheng and break Guan Yu's encirclement of the city. At the same time, Lv Meng led the Wu army to the south. Surrounded, Guan Yu was forced to retreat to Maicheng in the west.
In the second year of the Chuping Era (191AD), Gongsun Zan defeated the Yellow Scarves in Qingzhou and Xuzhou and stationed troops at Jieqiao. This posed a direct threat to Yuan Shao's legion. Yuan Shao led his main forces to confront Gongsun Zan twenty miles south of Jieqiao. Gongsun Zan's cavalry was attacked by Qu Yi's 800 crossbowmen and entered a state of chaos. Jizhou's governor, Yan Gang, was killed. Yuan Shao's army pursued the enemy to Jieqiao. Gongsun Zan's defense line was attacked yet again there. The commander of the Heishan army, Du Zhang came with reinforcements but was also defeated by Yuan Shao.
Nanzhong, including present-day Yunnan, Guizhou, and southwestern Sichuan, is the Shu Han area of the Three Kingdoms period. In the third year of the Zhangwu era, the Shu Han had recently been defeated and Liu Bei died of illness. Before long, Hanjia prefecture chief Huang Yuan revolted, causing political turmoil for Shu Han. As a result, incited by Yizhou's tyrant Yong Kai, the tyrants and Nanman people of the three counties of Nanzhong incited a rebellion. Because of the remote location and dangerous roads, the Shu Han did not immediately send troops to suppress it. Until two years later, the Shu Han prime minister Zhuge Liang personally led the troops from three directions to pacify the area.
Different from the Central Plains of the Huaxia, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River water network are extensive, swampy, and have villages scattered throughout them. It's a welcoming, fertile region. However, since the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, warlords began to spring up. Sun Ce first attacked Jiangdong, and Cao Cao later went after Jingzhou. When the Three Kingdoms were founded, the Cao Wei and Sun Wu often fought over the area along the Yangtze, bringing with them the misfortune of war.
The Yunmeng Marsh is a large lake between the Yangtze and Hanjiang Rivers. Due to the deposition of silt, its area has gradually reduced since the Qin and Han Dynasties. From the Wei and Jin Dynasties, its edge had degenerated into a swampy wetland along the Yangtze River. The Yunmeng Marsh is uninhabited, and its shoals, reeds, and muddy roads make it impassable. For troops looking to fight, the Yunmeng Marsh is no small obstacle.
At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, there was social unrest and aristocratic families began living together to protect themselves. The Eastern Wu in the south was no exception. Whether it was the imperial clan or the commanders in chief, they would often build luxurious mansions for themselves all around Jiangbiao. The mansions had high walls and large courtyards as well as watchtowers and other defense mechanisms. They were not only a place to live, but also a defensive base for the family clan.
Following the expansion of the Han Empire, military bases on the kingdom's rural borders sprung up one after another. These protective beacon towers were endless. They could warn people of enemies outside the wall with warning beacons that could be ignited at any time. Located far from the more rich and prosperous settlements, they provided a strong barrier in the vital region of Huaxia.
Gaul was a vast area of ancient Western Europe. It had fertile land, running rivers and much Gallic Oppidum. The militant Gallic warriors who captured the Rome City and burned it down were treated as the enemy of ancient Romans. The struggle between the two peoples lasted a long time, until the Roman conquest put an end to it.
With the demise of Carthage, North Africa - which also stood along the Mediterranean Sea - was gradually included into the territory of ancient Rome. In the south of this area was the vast Sahara desert, the southernmost tip of the Roman territory. Only sporadic oases dotted this landscape. It was more than just a rich fertile land, but also the outpost of the ancient Roman frontier, who kept a constant watch over the distance beyond.
In the north of the Roman Empire, there was a region called Germania. At that time, Germany was vast and wild. Except for sporadic Germanic tribes, most of the region was covered by rolling forests. The dense vegetation and tall conifers blotted out the sky and covered the sun. A humid climate brought about lingering fog diffusing in the forest, hidden under which were brutal murders.
Telamon,situated on the Apennine Peninsula is a city originally founded by the Etruscans and later conquered by the Romans. During the Republic, this is where the Romans pushed back invading tribes from the north and finally defeated them. This campaign was decisive in conquering Cisalpine Gaul, further expanding Roman control northwards.